«Иностранный язык»




Название«Иностранный язык»
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ТипПрограмма курса
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ISLANDS
The Isle of White is a part of Hampshire. Since the Victorian times it was adopted as a holiday island and tourism has been its bread and butter ever since. The island, 23 miles from west to east and 13 miles from north to south, is far smaller than Greater London and is known for its beauty and variety of scenery. A morning drive can cover most of the better-known places. In summer the island is crowded with visitors, its safe bathing and enviable sunshine making it ideal for family holidays. Newport is «capital» of the Isle of Wight, standing at the head of the River Medina. It is a market town and its Saturday market has been known since 1184. The main industries are plastics, manufacturing woodwork, milling, brewing and mineral water manufacture. Newport has an excavated Roman villa, and many attractive 17th century houses and a guildhall, designed by the 19th century architect John Nash.

Carisbrooke is the old capital of the island, with a mighty 12th century Norman castle, built on the site of a Roman fort. Charles I was imprisoned there in 1647-48, and his son Henry and daughter Elizabeth came as prisoners in 1650. Cowes is Britain's yachting «capital». There is Cowes Castle, built by Henry VIII, and the Royal Yacht Squadron is housed there. Its 22 brass guns stand ready on Victoria Parade to start races and fire Royal Salutes. Osborne House, one mile south-east, was Queen Victoria's home at the time of her death in 1901. Prince Albert and Thomas Cubitt together designed it as an Italian villa. Visitors can see the state and private apartments, furnished as they were in Queen Victoria's time.

Nearby is Norris Castle, where the young Princess Victoria frequently stayed with her mother. Ryde is one of the main Gateways to the Isle of Wight, having a half a mile long pier built in 1813. Its electric railway built in 1880 was one of the first in the world. Ryde has 5 miles of excellent sandy beach. The island is known for its St. Catherine's lighthouse, warning ships in the Channel of the coastline's dangers, and for its multi-coloured sandstone. Island souvenirs show their 12 distinct shades of sand.

WILDLIFE

The fauna of the British Isles is, in general, similar to that of North-western Europe, though there are fewer species. Some of the larger mammals, including the wolf, the bear, the boar and the reindeer, have become extinct. About 50 land mammals are still found in the UK. Different deer (red, roe, fallow) protected for sporting reasons flourish in Scotland and wooden areas of Southern England. The badger is rarely seen but there are many foxes in most rural areas, and otters are found along many rivers and streams. Both common and grey seals may be seen on various parts of the coast. Smaller mammals include mice, rats, voles, shrews, hedgehogs, squirrels, moles.

Birds are numerous. About 460 species of birds have been recorded in the British Isles. Some 200 species breed, the rest are regular migrants or pass through the country. Visitors to Britain are often struck by the abundance, variety and tameness of song birds in towns and villages. All British wild birds are protected. The principal exceptions are those considered injurious to agriculture and birds shot for sport in the open season.

Fish are numerous, both sea fish and fresh water fish. About 30 kinds of freshwater fish are found in the waters of Great Britain. Salmon, trout, pike, roach, dace, perch and carp are most widely distributed.

Reptiles and amphibians are few. But they are plentiful where conditions suit them.

There are more than 21000 different kinds of insects, most of them small. Among the largest are the rare swallowtail butterfly (8 to 10 cm) and the stag beetle (6 cm). The insect fauna in Britain is less varied than that of continental Europe and lacks a number of common European species.

^ MIGRATION WAVES

From the beginning of the 15th century until the 20th the balance of emigration was markedly outward due to colonial expansions. During the 19th century over 20 mln people left Britain for destinations outside Europe, mainly in the Commonwealth and the United States.

But since 1930s the balance of Migration for Britain was inward. Many emigrants began to return. The dismantling of the Empire has been a gradual process accompanied by the great inflow of people to Britain. Right up until 1962 the citizens of the huge area of the former Empire had the automatic right to live and work in Britain.

Many Irish people came to England in 1845 to escape famine, to find work. Most of the roads, railways and canals built in the 19th century, were made by Irish workers. The greatest wave of immigration was in the 1950s and 1960s. Many companies needed people for unskilled or semi-skilled jobs. Britain advertised and many people came from the Caribbean islands, from Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Hong Kong. People came here in search of better life, political or religious freedom. British government and people regarded this as a threat to the health of the nation: it increased unemployment, worsened living conditions. It was in these circumstances that the Government introduced the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 which gave it power to restrict the number of people from the Commonwealth, especially from the Irish Republic. Another Act was passed in 1968 and still another in 1971. The last has sharply reduced the number of people allowed to stay in Britain.
Образцы текстов для чтения и перевода на экзамене в конце IV семестра
^ IDENTIFYING THE EXCEPTIONAL CHILD

  1. The first step in planning work for the exceptional child is to discover his presence in the
    classroom. Certain physical handicaps are apparent. Others are easily discovered through the use oi
    screening tests, physical examinations,1 and mental tests. Certain children with special health prob­
    lems or with minor degrees of physical impairment or emotional maladjustment are discovered
    through observation.

  2. Child time is playtime, and the child who is not happy, active, interested is a sick child, men­
    tally, physically, or emotionally, or possibly in all three ways.2 In many instances, helping the chile
    to gain and maintain good physical health and stamina3 will result in the elimination or minimizing
    of his emotional problems. He is then capable of making maximum use of his mental endowments.

  3. Hence, a teacher should be so attentive to a child's words and actions that no sign of physical
    or emotional difficulty will escape her. A child's drowsiness, excessive thirst or frequent trips to the
    toilet, complaints of aches and pains in arms or legs may indicate the beginning of a serious health
    problem. If these symptoms are investigated early and their causes treated adequately, a long perioc
    of severe and devastating illness may be prevented. A child who cries easily, one who is always
    tired and languid, one who is cross, irritable, and not co-operative is trying in his way to tell of hi:
    physical needs and troubles. Sometimes glassy and at other times dull eyes, lusterless hair, pale 01
    heightened facial colour, scaly or dry skin may also indicate the need for attention.

  4. The slightest sign of trouble in a child should be observed by the teacher and, if the conditior
    seems persistent or acute, it should be reported to the school nurse for immediate attention. Under
    no circumstances should the teacher diagnose or prescribe treatment. By her alertness in observing
    symptoms of illness and promptness in reporting her observations the teacher will do her part5
    stop serious sickness.

  5. The teacher should know what facilities and services are available in the country, and state fo:
    diagnosis and treatment of handicapped children and what procedure should be used in referring
    children to the proper agency.6

  6. If the school district does not employ a school nurse, the responsibility of seeing that sucl
    children are referred to an agency that can assist the parents may devolve upon the teacher. The teacher should also know where she can obtain assistance in planning activities and adjusting the curriculum to help the exceptional children enrolled in her class.


^ THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF THE SOVIET AND ENGLISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

  1. It has become a tradition for the children of our country to bring flowers to school on the first
    of September. Both for teachers and schoolchildren the beginning of a new year is a red-letter day.1

  2. All those who have 8-year schooling will either be staying on at school or will pursue their
    education at technicums and vocational technical schools.

  3. For some time it has been sought by our teachers, specialists in pedagogics and psychology to
    bring the curricula in line with technology and culture. The commission which was set up some
    years ago, found it possible to change over from four-year primary school to 3 year. It being known
    that the curriculum of the primary school includes foundations of algebra and geometry. Before this
    reform began to be implemented in broad scales, experiments had been concluded in separate
    schools.

  4. Rudiments of science" are taught already in the fourth form. New school curricula envisage
    also the instruction of the elements of higher mathematics, geometry, genetics in the senior classes
    of secondary schools.

  5. Our school-graduates needn't worry about jobs. The graduates are so much in demand, that
    it's out of the question that someone of them remains without work.

  6. And now it would be interesting to compare the Soviet system of education with that of Eng­
    land.

  7. To begin with, in Britain school starts at the age of five. Between the age of 5 and 7 children
    go to infant school, and between the age of 7 to 11 to junior school.

  8. Until recently all children at the age of 10 or 11 had to take examination which determined
    their future. Those who failed in their 11-plus exams were considered to be "nongrammar types"
    and had to go to modern schools. And that means no General Certificate of Education3 (GCE) and
    no college education. And it's only natural that children from a background of poverty and unem­
    ployment should be less developed at this early stage than their luckier schoolmates from middle-
    class background.

  9. They don't have a unified system of secondary education in Britain. Until some time ago they
    had a tripartite system: that is modern schools, grammar schools and technical schools. There are
    big differences in the time devoted by each type of school to the same subjects. As a result of selec­
    tive education children of poor families are deprived of the chance to catch up later. For it is much
    easier to gain a university place if you have attended a grammar school.




  1. Thus, it turns out, that though the compulsory school age is the same for all children, practi­
    cally the level of the child's knowledge depends on the type of school. The answer to this is com­
    prehensive schooling. A comprehensive school is a school for all pupils of secondary school age in
    a school district. These schools should cover all the work done in grammar, modern and technical
    schools. They offer a wide range of general and vocational subjects.

  2. It should be noted, that there is no general leaving examinations in Britain, but children who
    enter grammar schools are expected to sit for their GCE exams on the ordinary level soon after their
    16th birthday.

  3. The stage is now set for the education reform to be carried through to finality in the near fu­
    ture. It is quite usual for children from the middle and upper classes in Britain to follow an educa­
    tional career, for they usually have full-time schooling and have no trouble entering the university.
    Indeed there is every reason for upper classes to claim that education has become more available in

Britain than it used to be. But in fact, the children from working background have been waiting for equal opportunities with those of the upper class already for ages.
^ GEORGE GORDON BYRON

  1. George Gordon Byron was born in London, on January 22, 1788. His father, an army officer.
    died when the future poet was three years old. Byron spent the first ten years of his life in Scotland.
    He attended Grammar school' in Aberdean. In 1798 George's grand-uncle died and the boy inhe­
    rited the title of baron. Then he was sent to Harrow School. At seventeen he entered Cambridge
    University.

  2. While a student Byron published his first collection of poems "Hours of Idleness" (1807). It
    was attacked by a well-known critic who suggested that Byron should not write any more poems in
    future.

In 1808 Byron graduated from the University and received his Master of Arts degree, and next year took his hereditary seat in the House of Lords.

In 1812 Byron made his first speech in the House of Lords. He spoke in defence of the English proletariat and blamed the Government for the unbearable conditions of the life of the workers.

3. In 1816 he wrote his "Song for the Luddites" in which he raised his voice in defence of the
oppressed workers, encouraging them to fight for freedom.

When the first two cantos of "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" were published, they were received with enthusiasm by his contemporaries and Byron became famous.

Between 1813 and 1816 Byron composed his "Oriental Tales", "The Corsair", "Lara" and oth­ers. The hero of each poem is a rebel against society. He is proud and independent and rises against tyranny and injustice to gain his personal freedom and happiness. But his revolt is too individualis­tic and therefore it is doomed to failure.3

  1. In 1816 he left for Switzerland. There he wrote his dramatic poem "Manfred" (1817). In 1817
    he left for Italy. The Italian period (1817—1823) influenced by revolutionary ideas may be consi­dered to be the summit of Byron's poetical career. In "Don Juan" (1819— 1824) he depicts Europe
    in the 19th century and gives a broad panorama of contemporary life.

The War of Greece against the Turks attracted his attention. Byron longed for action and went
to Greece to take part in the straggle for national independence. Soon after his arrival he was seized
with fever and died in 1824 at the age of 36.
Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens, a great English writer, was born on the 7th of February, 1812, in a small English town. He was a weak child and didn't like to take part in noisy and active games. The little boy was very clever and learnt to read at an early age. He read a lot of books in his childhood. When he was about six, someone took him to theatre for the first time. He saw a play by Shakes-peare and liked it so mush that he decided to write a play of his own. When it was ready, he per-formed it with some of his friends. Everybody enjoyed the performance, and the little writer felt very happy.

When Dickens was nine years old, the family moved to London where they lived in an old house in the suburbs. They had a very hard life. There were several younger children in the family besides Charles. The future writer couldn't even go to school, because at that time his father was in the Marshalsea Debtor's Prison. There was nobody in London to whom Mr. Dickens could go for money, and his wife with all the children except Charles went to join him in the prison. The family lived there until Mr. Dickens could pay his debts. Those were the most unhappy days of all Charles' life. The boy worked from early morning till late at night to help his family. Charles was only able to start going to school when he was nearly twelve, and his father was out of prison. He very much wanted to study, but he didn't finish his schooling. After two years of school he began working again. He had to work hard to earn his living, and tried very many trades, but he did not like any of them.

His ambition was to study and become a well-educated man. At the age of fifteen he of-ten went to the famous library of British Museum. He spent a lot of time in the library reading-room. He read and studied there and in this way he got an education.

Later Dickens described his childhood and youth in some of his famous novels, among them «Little Dorrit» and «David Copperfield».
The Bronte family

The story of the famous and talented Bronte family is strange and unusual.

The Bronte children - five girls and a boy - lived with their father and aunt in Yorkshire. All the children were in poor health. Two of the girls died while they were still at school Bramwell. The boy was good at writing poetry but he died at the age of 31. Anne, who wrote poetry and two novels, died at 29. Emily, who became world famous as the author of «Wuthering Heights», died a year after the book was published in 1847. Charlotte, the author of the wonderful novel «Jane Eyre», was the only one strong enough to go out into the world and live her own life for a while. But even she died at the early age of 39.

It was nearly impossible to believe that these wonderful books were written by young women who had not seen anything of the world except the life of their own family. Nobody knew that the Bronte children had learned to write stories while they were playing. They didn't like to play noisy games. The game they liked best of all was writing little stories of their own. All this was only found out in 1930 by an American university librarian who studied some of the toys and hand-written little books found in the house the Bronte family had lived.
From the history of the Russian Language

The first attempts to create a literary language date from the 1 lth century. The development of a Russian literary language was complicated by the parallel existence of the Church Slavonic literary language which was closely related to Russian. The Russia literary language began very early to become a common language for all Eastern Slavs. The struggle and interaction between the Russian and the Church Slavonic literary languages resulted in the domination of Church Slavonic in the fifteenth century, while literary Russian was retained only in ukazes, correspondence, memoirs. Fiction and all the orthodox literature of that period were written in Church Slavonic.

The final standardization of the Russian literary language is linked with the name of. M.V. Lomonosov, the founder of Russian linguistics, who laid down the rules of literary language in his Russian Grammar. The basic of this new literary language was the old Russian literary language enriched by the addition of words from European and church Slavonic languages. The mixture of these languages is clear from the vocabulary of the first six-volume academic Slavonic and Russian Dictionary.

The Russian poet Karamzin and his literary heirs, especially Pushkin, refined the Russian literary language still further. In 1817 a bitter controversy was raging between the followers of Shishkov and Karamzin concerning the proper language of literature, Shishkov championed the su-periority of Church-Slavic over the language of common people, as well as over the Frenchified speech of cultivated Russians. Pushkin wages a vigorous campaign in behalf of the language which he himself used with unequalled power and beauty - the autochthonous speech of the Russian people.

The spoken language of the Moscow region (the basic of the Russian literary language) became a common language for the Russian nation.
Linguistics and Language Teaching

The language teacher's aim in regard to a language is not the same as the aim of a descriptive linguist. The teacher is not simply concerned with its systematic description and analysis, but with facilitating the acquisition of a language other than their mother tongue by other people. Linguists describe and analyse many languages that will never be taught to others. They may even be on the verge of extinction; indeed, books, texts, or even languages themselves, which are utterly irrelevant to the teacher, may make it of especial interest to the general linguist. But it is to be hoped and believed that the techniques and methods of scientific linguistics will aid and improve the work of the language teacher.

Linguistic science has been stimulated and nourished all the time by the work of language teachers. They have provided linguists with a great deal of their material, and the problems and difficulties they encountered stimulated linguistic research. The science of language owes much to the work of people who would never claim for themselves the title of general linguists. But it may be believed that the teacher who understands and can make use of the methods of scientific linguistics will find the task of presenting a language to his students very much lightened and facilitated. In particular the intuitive feeling for correctness in a language on which teachers have often relied as a fruit of their long experience will be replaced by an objective and publicly communicable know-ledge of its elements and structures, which can be systematically imparted to others.

Long ago different events in the world started attracting attention to the needs and advantages of close contacts between linguists and teachers of languages. For example, sudden requirements for numbers of persons to be rapidly trained in particular aspects and styles of languages spoken in some areas in the Second World War made a profound impact on linguistic work in Great Britain and America. The results of such work have contributed greatly to the programmes of language teaching, and particularly to the teaching of English in many parts of the world today. Many linguists devote much of their time to the study and development of teaching methods and the improvement of teaching materials in the service of English as a foreign language.

The wonderful world of books

Why are so many people fond of reading? The world of books is full of wonders. Reading books you can find yourself in different lands, countries, islands, seas and oceans. Together with the characters of the book you go by ship in the stormy sea, you climb high mountains, you fly into space, you have a lot of adventures. There are authors and characters famous all over the world. Who hasn't read «Alice in Wonderland» by Lewis Carrol? or «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer» by Mark Twain? or «Mowgli» by Rudyard Kipling? Who hasn't travelled with Mary Poppins to her imaginary world? Who hasn't imagined himself to be Robinson Crusoe on the deserted island?

We enjoy the beauty and wisdom of fairy-tales and fables which teach us to be kind and clever, to be hard-working, to be brave and honest, to understand other people. Books help us to be true friends. They teach us to understand the beauty of nature, to take care of it, to love our homeland. As there are many different people in the world so there are many different books. An English author once wrote: "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested". This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. Most travel books are to be tasted; it's enough to dip into them and read bits here and there. If you're fond of detective stories (Agatha Christie, Simenon and the rest of the modern favourites), you will read them quickly, you'll swallow them. And then there are books that you'll read slowly and carefully. If a book is on an important subject and a subject you're interested in, you'll want to chew and digest it.

You can find all kinds of books at the library. Almost every city has a public library. There is a library at every school, institute or university, which is rich in books on different subjects. You can find there any book you like. Sometimes it is difficult to choose a book. Then you ask a librarian to help you.
Proverbs

A proverb is a traditional saying which offers advice or presents a moral in a short and pithy manner. Paradoxically, many phrases which are called 'proverbial' are not proverbs as we now understand the term. The confusion dates from before the eighteenth century, when the term 'proverb' also covered metaphorical phrases, similes, and descriptive epithets, and was used far more loosely than it is today. Nowadays we would normally expect a proverb to be cast in the form of a sentence.

Proverbs fall readily into three main categories. Those of the first type take the form of abstract statements expressing general truth, such as ^ Absence makes the heart grow fonder and Nature abhors a vacuum. Proverbs of the second type, which include many of the more colourful examples, use specific observations from everyday experience to make a point which is general; for instance, You can take a horse to water, but you can't make it drink and Don't pull all your eggs in one basket. The third type of proverb comprises sayings from particular areas of traditional wisdom and folklore. In this category are found, for example, the health proverbs After dinner rest a while, after supper walk a mile and Feed a cold and starve a fever. These are frequently classical maxims rendered into the vernacular. In addition, there are traditional country proverbs which relate to husbandry, the seasons, and the weather, such as Red sky at night, shepherd's delight; red sky in the morning, shepherd's warning and When the wind is in the east, 'tis neither good for man nor beast.

It is sometimes said that the proverb is going out of fashion, or that it has degenerated into the cliche. Such views overlook the fact that while the role of the proverb in English literature has changed, its popular currency has remained constant. In medieval times, and even as late as the seventeenth century, proverbs often had the status of universal truths and were used to confirm or refute an argument. Lengthy lists of proverbs were compiled to assist the scholar in debate; and many sayings from Latin, Greek, and the continental languages were drafted into English for this purpose. By the eighteenth century, however, the popularity of the proverbs had declined in the work of educated writers, who began to ridicule it as a vehicle for trite, conventional wisdom. The proverb has nonetheless retained its popularity as a homely commentary on life and as a reminder that the wisdom of our ancestors may still be useful to us today.
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